Before directly entering into the list of Nobel Prize 2019 winners, let’s have an overview of what the prize is about. Well, the Nobel Prize represents the set of international awards awarded annually concerning five categories by Norwegian and Swedish academies to appreciate cultural, academic, or scientific developments officially.
The award is named after the Swedish inventor, chemist, engineer, industrialist, and philanthropist, Alfred Nobel. His will led to the establishment of Nobel Prizes in five different categories in the year.
The first five Nobel Prizes in Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Medicine or Physiology, Economics, and Peace were awarded in 1901.
Nobel Prize Awarding Process
The process of awarding Nobel Prizes for all five domains- Medicine or Physiology, Literature, Chemistry, Physics, Economics, and Peace)- is similar. The only difference lies in the nomination, where different individual is chosen per domain to decide who to be nominated.
For Nobel Prize 2019, the Nobel Committee has sent about 3,000 nominations forms to the relevant individuals in September just prior to the award session.
The nominated individuals are usually well-known academics engaged in their relevant subject matter. Inquiries concerning Peace Prize were sent to the former laureates of the same field along with the former or current Norwegian Committee of Nobel. The time span of returning the nomination forms is 31st January of the year of the award.
The Committee of Nobel proposes about 300 proficient laureates, some from nomination forms, and some from an additional list. The selected nominees are neither published nor are they intimated about being considered for the honor. The complete record of all the nominees is locked for 50 years from the day of awarding the prize.
The Committee of Nobel then makes a report according to the expert’s suggestions reflecting their views on the relevant subject matter. Later this report is submitted along with the names of the preliminary candidates to the prize-giving organizations. These institutes accordingly select the most deserved laureate/laureates in each subject by the voting process. Then the final decision is declared immediately after announcing the voting result.
Three laureates at maximum and two different endeavors will be chosen per prize. However, the Nobel Peace Prize, unlike the other types which are solely meant for individuals, can be awarded to organizations as well.
Let’s take a look at the ceremonial citations of Nobel Prize 2019 list of winners:
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
On 7th October 2019, Gregg Semenza and William Kaelin from the United States and Peter Ratcliffe of Britain shared the honor of Nobel Prize 2019 in medicines. They made their discoveries on the way by which cells sense and get adapted to the aerobic environment, making a step ahead to advanced cancer treatments.
On 8th October, American-Canadian cosmologist, James Peebles, and two Swiss astronomers Didier Queloz and Michel Mayor split the honor of Nobel Prize 2019 in Physics. Their works state “for theoretical discoveries that have contributed to our understanding of how the universe evolved after the Big Bang.”
On 9th October, the Nobel Prize 2019 honor was given to M. Stanley Whittingham, John Goodenough, and Akira Yoshino. Their outstanding endeavors in the improvement of lithium-ion batteries led them to this success. Through this development, they paved the right conditions to bring about a fossil-fuel-free and wireless society. Hence, it can be concluded that their work and discoveries have brought about a huge benefit to humankind.
On 10th October, Peter Handke, an Austrian novelist, and Olga Tokarczuk, a Polish author, received Nobel Prize 2019 and 2018, respectively, in Literature. The Nobel Committee postponed the 2018 prize after a scandal of sexual assault halted the entire process.
On 11th October, Abiy Ahmed Ali, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, was honored with Nobel Peace Prize 2019 for terminating 20 years hostility interval with its neighboring nation of northeast Africa, Eritrea.
On 14th October, Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee, his spouse Esther Duflo, and Michael Kremer shared the honor of Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics honoring Alfred Nobel. All of them received the Nobel Prize in Economics for their exploratory technique of the increasing global poverty.
These are the latest update of the Nobel Prize 2019 winners. The remaining winner’s list for this year is yet to be announced shortly.